Abstract Research studies, including qualitative studies, form the basis for evidence-based practice among health professionals. However, many practicing health educators do not feel fully confident in their ability to critically appraise qualitative research studies. This publication presents an overview of qualitative research approaches, defines key terminology used in qualitative research, and provides guidelines for appraising the strengths and weaknesses of published qualitative research. On reading, health educators will be better equipped to evaluate the quality of the evidence through critical appraisals of qualitative research publications.
I have chosen the above article to critique because of the wide media interest and the public perception of nurses failing to meet the basic need of patients, especially elderly and vulnerable patients BBC, The aim especially emphasises the relationship between older people and nurses in the context of compassion.
The author has used a qualitative analysis of in depth interviews to attain this knowledge. The research finds that compassion has seven dimensions- attentiveness, listening, confronting, involvement, helping, presence and understanding. The research concludes that compassion is of value to nurse and patient as it motivates both in forming a partnership to achieve the best outcome of care.
The author further explains that the use of grounded theory and in particular the emergent fit mode- in other words gathering theory from data and then clarifying that theory. Constant comparative analysis, analytical induction and oretical sensitivity are then used in order to interpret the empirical data.
However, there are dangers in using the emergent fit mode. Artinian and Giske state that although this approach allows the author to build upon the work of previous research, if the variables of the research were obtained from the literature review then they may be wrong.
The author admits that the literature review revealed little research had been completed in this field, and so bases her concept of compassion upon the work of the philosophers Frederick Nietzsche and Martha Critical appraisal qualitative research nursing.
I do not want this to become a philosophical debate but some mention should be made of using one philosophical train of thought over another. However, other philosophers do not accept this Fox, Secondly, Nietzsche- the author cites work by Roeser and Willemson about Nietzsche as her evidence that imagination and not projection are needed in compassion Roesur and Willemson, This is a secondary reference, not a primary source, and should therefore be used with caution.
This directly contradicts the authors assertion that compassion is a necessity in development. The author describes why these particular people were chosen for the study but not how.
The study focuses on older people living with a chronic illness and so only clients over the age of 65 with a chronic illness were chosen. In some cases clients were proposed by nurses to the author, this in my view may leave the results open to question- bias could unwittingly occur.
However, this is based on findings published 6 years ago van Heijst, It is made explicit that data was collected in semi structured interviews conducted by the author, assisted by students, and based on a questionnaire that is published in the article.
The interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed until data saturation was achieved.
However, there is no indication of how these interviews were conducted. It is important for the author to examine their own role in the collection of data and in how the research questions were formulated.
The author does admit that in the end the interpretation of the results is down to the researcher, and can therefore be open to critique. However, the author does not explain adequately in my opinion their role in influencing the students who assisted with the interviews.
It is stated that the students were hand-picked and then trained extensively in interview skills by the author. It has been shown that students can be influenced both positively and negatively by mentors Bradbury-Jones, C.
It could be argued that students would be influenced even further just by their participation in a research project that would end up in print. It would be in their best interests for the research to reach a satisfactory conclusion, but nowhere in the article is this mentioned.
Ethics in research is of prime importance.
They further state that not only should a description of how approval was achieved be included, but also a description of how informed consent was given. It is not made clear if the patients were in the presence of professionals when signing the letter of informed consent-if they were then the criticism of coercion could be levelled.
Furthermore, it is not stated how it was ensured that the patients understood what it was they were being asked to sign. No mention is made of how the research was explained to the patients or how the patients may have handled the effects of the study.
The author does however, provides an in depth description of the process of data analysis. Data was recorded and transcribed then analysed with a computer software programme Atlas-Ti.
This software is used widely in qualitative research and data analysis Atlas. This helped the author to develop a list of concepts common in compassion- attentiveness, listening, confronting, involvement, helping, presence and understanding. In my opinion, there are two main problems with this.
Firstly, as I mentioned earlier there is the problem of bias from the students. Secondly, the idea of using this data to achieve a hypothesis seems to contradict the concept of grounded theory itself.
I can understand why the author used this approach- after all, a split has developed with the two founders of grounded theory Glasser and Strauss over the use of the coding paradigm e.Research critique is a careful critical appraisal of the study’s strength and limitations focusing on whether the findings are accurate, believable and clinically meaningful (Polit and Beck, ).
Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Critical Appraisal Basics Susan M. Rugari, PhD, RN, CNS Associate Professor in Nursing.
Research studies, including qualitative studies, form the basis for evidence-based practice among health professionals. However, many practicing health educators do not feel fully confident in their ability to critically appraise qualitative research studies.
problem, the hypothesis or research question/s, aims and objectives of the study (Polit and Hungler ). It should also cite the methods, which may include either a qualitative or quantitative approach, or a combination of both, to collect the data, the results, conclusions and recommendations for practice (Parahoo and Reid ).
The design and evaluation of a critical appraisal tool for qualitative and quantitative health research. Submitted by. Michael Crowe.
MIT – National University of Ireland, Galway. Essay On Critical Appraisal Of a Research Arti» All Free Essays Van der Cingel, M.
() compassion in care: A qualitative study of older people with a chronic disease and nurses, Nursing Ethics, 18 (5), pp