Primary Sources 1 Jane AddamsTwenty Years at Hull House A huge Hellenic meeting held at Hull-House, in which the achievements of the classic period were set forth both in Greek and English by scholars of well-known repute, brought us into a new sense of fellowship with all our Greek neighbors. As the mayor of Chicago was seated upon the right hand of the dignified senior priest of the Greek Church and they were greeted alternately in the national hymns of America and Greece, one felt a curious sense of the possibility of transplanting to new and crude Chicago some of the traditions of Athens itself, so deeply cherished in the hearts of this group of citizens. The Greeks indeed gravely consider their traditions as their most precious possession and more than once in meetings of protest held by the Greek colony against the aggressions of the Bulgarians in Macedonia, I have heard it urged that the Bulgarians are trying to establish a protectorate, not only for their immediate advantage, but that they may claim a glorious history for the "barbarous country. We were flooded by nationalisms.
Illegal Immigration in the Midst of Crisis March 8, By Charalambos Kasimis Immigrant detention centers in Greece have been criticized for their overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
Once known for its large-scale emigration, Greece transitioned to a country of destination for Central and Eastern European immigrants after the fall of the Soviet Union and other communist regimes in the region.
More recently, the country has become one of entry and transit for hundreds of thousands of unauthorized immigrants from Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
Employment and income have shrunk for both the native-born and immigrant populations, while competition within and between the two has increased. This has resulted in lower wages, a contracting labor market, and fewer regularized immigrants — drawing attention to immigration as a growing threat to the cohesion of modern Greek society.
Emigration from Greece Two important waves of mass emigration took place after the formation of the modern Greek state in the early s: The first wave of emigration was spurred by the economic crisis of that followed the rapid fall in the price of currants — the major export product Greek immigration the country at that time — in the international markets.
Greek immigration the period between andalmost a sixth of the population of Greece emigrated, mostly to the United States and Egypt. This emigration was, in a sense, encouraged by Greek authorities, who saw remittances as a means for improving the Greek economy. More than 1 million Greeks migrated in this second wave, the bulk of them departing between and to Western Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia.
Economic and political factors were the primary motivators behind the migrations, both connected with the consequences of the civil war and the period of military junta rule that followed.
Official statistics show that, between andGermany absorbedGreek immigrants, Australia , the United States , and Canada 80, The majority of the migrants came from rural areas of Greece, and they supplied both national and international labor markets.
Due to economic uncertainty following the oil crises of and and the adoption of restrictive immigration policies by some European countries, emigration flows were severely reduced and return migration increased. Between andalmost half of the emigrants of the postwar period had returned to Greece.
Immigration Replaces Emigration as the Dominant Trend Declining emigration and increasing return migration of Greeks created a positive migration balance in Greece in the s.
Immigration then grew at the beginning of the s when a small number of Africans, Asians, and Poles arrived and found work in construction, agriculture, and domestic services. Nevertheless, immigration at that time was still limited in size.
Inthere were a total of about 90, immigrants in the country, one-third of whom were from Europe. Inthe number of registered "foreigners" as they are officially referred to in Greece had grown toout of a total population of 10, The collapse of regimes in the formerly communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe in helped transform what was at one time sporadic immigration to Greece into a massive, uncontrollable phenomenon.
As a result, the country received the highest percentage of immigrants in relation to its labor force in the s, despite being one of the less-developed nations in Europe at that time. ByGreece had an immigrant population of just overPositioned at the southeastern "gate" of the European Union, and with extensive coastlines and easily crossable borders, Greece has become a common transit country for those seeking entry into Europe.
Also key have been the rapid changes that narrowed the economic and social distance between Greece and Northern European countries following the integration of Greece into the European Union in In step with economic development, improved living standards and higher levels of education have led many young Greeks to reject low-status and low-income jobs.
Meanwhile, the large size of the informal, family-based economy and the seasonal nature of major industries such as tourism, agriculture, and construction have created demand for a flexible labor pool independent of trade union practices and legislation.
Gateway to Europe Illegal immigration to Greece has increased rapidly over the past several years. Tough immigration policies in Spain and Italy and agreements with their neighboring African countries to combat illegal immigration have changed the direction of African immigration flows toward Greece.
At the same time, flows from Asia and the Middle East — mainly Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Bangladesh — to Greece appear to have increased as well.
In90 percent of all apprehensions for unauthorized entry into the European Union took place in Greece, compared to 75 percent in and 50 percent in In, persons were arrested for "illegal entry or stay" in Greece, a sharp increase from 95, in Nearly half of those arrested 52, were immediately deported, the majority of them being Albanians.
Those not deported either applied for asylum or were issued a decision to self deport within one month — which effectively means unauthorized stay in the country.
The main points of entry for illegal immigration to Greece include the Greek-Albanian land border, the Greek-Turkish land border, and sea borders between Greece and Turkey.
In the past three years, there has been a notable shift in illegal immigration flows from sea borders to the Greek-Turkish land border. Injust under 5 percent of all apprehensions for the year took place at Greek-Turkish sea-borders, compared to nearly 21 percent in Meanwhile, apprehensions at the Greek-Turkish land border increased from 10 percent in to over 35 percent in Apprehensions at the Greek-Turkish land border in the first quarter of were up to 39 percent, indicating a continued trend despite a reduction in the number of apprehensions overall.*Immigrants who obtained legal permanent resident status in the United States.
Source: Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, Greeks in the United States. Upon arriving in the United States, most Greek immigrants found jobs in various industries.
In New England, for example, they worked in textile mills. Primary Sources Greek Immigration. There was little Greek emigration in the 19th century but this changed in the 20th century.
By the outbreak of the First World War there were about , Greek immigrants in the United States. The main reason for leaving Greece was unemployment, low wages and high prices.
Immigration and Nationality Law is a complex and constantly changing area of law in Europe and Greece. The policies, regulations, nuances, and varying political climates make it difficult to seek and attain proper visa and immigration status or .
Greece: Illegal Immigration in the Midst of Crisis Once known for large-scale emigration, Greece has become the main point of entry for unauthorized migrants heading toward Europe. The country must now — amid economic turmoil — grapple with issues related to its highly porous borders, mounting asylum applications, and inadequate immigrant.
The Weaknesses of Greek Immigration Policies The Greek government was unprepared to receive such a large number of immigrants over such a relatively short period of time, and it has struggled with how best to deal with the integration of this population.
Greek Immigration There was little Greek emigration in the 19th century but this changed in the 20th century. By the outbreak of the First World War there were about , Greek immigrants in .