Surviving The Pharma-Induced Flu Outbreak The flu season is upon us and according to new published reports, it may extend until the late spring. The flu is said to have caused a tremendous amount of deaths and hospitalizations this year. News reports come out daily with reports of little children dying from the flu. Well you should not be.
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Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: This report summarizes the epidemiology of JE, describes the two JE vaccines that are licensed in the United States, and provides recommendations for their use among travelers and laboratory workers.
JE virus JEVa mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. JE occurs throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific.
For most travelers to Asia, the risk for JE is very low but varies on the basis of destination, duration, season, and activities.
JE vaccine is recommended for travelers who plan to spend a month or longer in endemic areas during the JEV transmission season and for laboratory workers with a potential for exposure to infectious JEV. JE vaccine is not recommended for short-term travelers whose visit will be restricted to urban areas or times outside of a well-defined JEV transmission season.
Two JE vaccines are licensed in the United States. Supplies of this vaccine are limited because production has ceased. Introduction Japanese encephalitis virus JEVa mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the most common vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia 1,2.
Japanese encephalitis JE occurs throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific 1,3. In endemic countries, JE is primarily a disease of children.
However, travel-associated JE, although rare, can occur among persons of any age 6 For most travelers to Asia, the risk for JE is very low but varies based on destination, duration, season, and activities 9, JEV is transmitted in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds 11, JEV transmission occurs primarily in rural agricultural areas.
In most temperate areas of Asia, JEV transmission is seasonal, and substantial epidemics can occur. In the subtropics and tropics, transmission can occur year-round, often intensifying during the rainy season.
This report provides recommendations for use of the two JE vaccines licensed in the United States for prevention of JE among travelers and laboratory workers. Workgroup members included persons with expertise in JE, infectious diseases, travel medicine, public health, biostatistics, immunization safety, and vaccine policy.
The workgroup reviewed JE epidemiology, incidence of and risk factors for travel-associated JE disease, measures available to prevent JE disease, and the efficacy, immunogenicity, safety, cost-effectiveness, and availability of JE vaccine.
Primary sources were published, peer-reviewed studies; however, unpublished data also were considered. The workgroup held regular conference calls and met three times.
Recommendation options were developed and discussed. When definitive research evidence was lacking, the recommendations incorporated expert opinion of the workgroup members. The workgroup presented progress reports and preliminary recommendations to ACIP during its February and October meetings.
Proposed recommendations and a draft statement were presented to ACIP and approved at the June meeting. ACIP will review additional data as these are made available, particularly regarding any adverse events following receipt of JE-VC that are reported during postmarketing surveillance studies.
Recommendations will be updated as needed. Louis encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue viruses 15, Four genotypes of JEV have been identified JEV is an arthropod-borne virus arbovirus that is transmitted in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds Figure 1 12, Because of rapid population turnover with a large number of susceptible offspring and the development of high-titered JEV viremias, domestic pigs are the most important source of infection for mosquitoes that transmit JEV to humans 11, JEV is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
Humans usually do not develop a level or duration of viremia sufficient to infect mosquitoes 12,View Homework Help - Week 2 Assignment HHSdocx from HHS at Ashford University.
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